|My love, my heart, my soul, my dearest abah & mama|
Wednesday, March 13, 2013
Monday, March 11, 2013
To share something academic on my blog is something that I have always wanted to do.
So, I'm doing it now :)
This complicated topic was actually assigned to us by Dr Ellisha Nasruddin for our group project for Sustainability Concept and Issues (SCI) course. Pursuing Master of Business Administration with a focus on Sustainable Development, SCI is one of our specialization courses. Although SCI is undoubtedly a tough course, I love it so much as it has brought me to explore on exciting issues that I have never thought of concerning us, the economy and most importantly, the environment we are living in.
Actually, post-capitalist ecological economy or also known as ecological socialist economic democracy is an economic system proposed by the transformist environmental lovers to replace current economic system. Capitalism in current economy is viewed as a threat to the environment sustainability. The world should therefore be prepared to embrace on this new green economic system.. ‘a practical, workable post capitalist ecological economy, an economy by the people, for the people, that is geared to production for need, not for profit’.
Interested to learn more about this new economic system? Do enjoy reading below explanation that I have taken from the group termpaper submitted at the end of last semester entitle:
"THE THREAT OF POVERTY IN ECO-SOCIALIST ECONOMIC DEMOCRACY" (Alia, Darab, Farah, & Felicia, 2012)
What is Capitalist Economy?
Today, the world largely operates under a global economic system based on the capitalist mode of production (Conklin, 1991). Being the most efficient and profitable economy, production in capitalist economy is carried out to maximize corporations’ profit. In capitalist economy, decisions regarding investment and the use of the means of production are determined by competing business owners in the marketplace. Therefore, production takes place within the process of capital accumulation. Being a strong supporter of socialism, Karl Marx, has heavily critiqued capitalism as “dictatorship of the bourgeoisie” with the belief that this economy is run by the wealthy class purely for their own benefit (Peavler, 2012).
Why is Capitalist Economy a Threat to Ecological Sustainability?
In his study, Smith (2010) argues that irresistible and relentless pressures for growth are needed for day-to-day requirements of capitalist reproduction in a competitive market. Growth is an iron law of capitalist development and it can only exist with constant revolutionizing of productive forces, with constantly expanding markets, and with ever-growing consumption of resources. In ensuring ecological sustainability, socialism and eco-socialists generally believe that capitalist economy system is irrelevant due to its bad impacts.
Capitalist economy violates the law of sustainability in which it enriches the economy and a small part of the society (the wealthy group) while deteriorating the environment and bottom billion’s wellbeing. Besides, capitalist is the cause of social exclusion, inequality (Kovel & Lowy, 2001).
Thus, Herman Daly proposed for a steady state economy in order to replace current system. A steady state capitalist economy is an economy of relatively stable size. It features stable population and stable consumption that remain at or below carrying capacity. However, Smith (2010) argues that steady state economy is based on weak assumption, as it assumes that growth is optional rather than built-into capitalism. He concludes that capitalist growth cannot be stopped, or even slowed and market-driven growth is driving us towards collapse. Therefore, ecological economist should abandon the fantasy of a steady-state capitalism and work on post-capitalist economic democracy.
What is Ecosystem Resilience All About?
The amazing characteristic of ecosystem is it has the natural ability to recover or return to its original stage after being disturbed. However, due to human activities, most of them involving extensive natural resources usage and environmental pollution to serve the capitalist needs of production, this ability have declined globally in the last half century (Chapin, 2009). Chapin (2009) has also reviewed that in the collapse of many advanced human societies, including Babylon, the Roman Empire, and the Mayan Civilization was contributed by environmental degradation. Therefore, it is of vital importance that human play their role in ecosystem management starting by establishing resilience-based ecosystem stewardship. Nevertheless, by considering ecosystem interest in the heart of every activity, capitalist economy may not be able to function at its best.
Is Socialist Economy Good?
Socialist economy is defined as an economic system based on state an economic system based on state ownership of capital. It is a system in which the means of production, such as money and other form of capital, are owned by the state or public (Peavler, 2012). Everyone works for wealth that will be distributed to everyone under socialist system which is contradicting with capitalist system. Also, in socialist economy, the government will decide how wealth would be distributed among the people. Socialist oriented economy focuses more on qualitative development instead of quantitative development.
Karl Marx, a strong supporter of socialism, argued that society would be governed by the working class or workers’ democracy. Eventually, socialism would be replaced by stateless, classless society called communism. However, socialism as an ideology or as a political concept has been in declined for a number of years and it is now replaced with liberal ‘democracy’ and market economics (Sarkar, 2000).
Achieving Ecological Socialist Economic Democracy and Its Issues
Sarkar (2000) in his book argues that the socialist project is not dead but to flourish, it must be incorporated with the lessons of ecology. The incorporation would be able to offer a fresh, exciting and relevant vision of an ecologically sustainable and socially just way of living. Sarkar’s view was also supported by Smith (2010) which stated that the best way to run the economy and maintaining ecological sustainability is by having ‘a practical, workable post capitalist ecological economy, an economy by the people, for the people, that is geared to production for need, not for profit’.
Smith (2010) also suggested that in order to achieve eco-socialist economic democracy there are at least seven issues that have to be discussed and considered. The first issue is to find way to put the brakes on out-of-control growth, even if it involves drastically retrenching or shutting down relevant organisations. The second issue is to have radical production restructuring to enforce sharp limits on the production and to physically ration the use and consumption of all sorts of natural resources. The third issue is to sharply increase investments in things that society really need, like renewable energy, organic farming, health, quality schools for our children, and many other currently underfunded social and environmental needs.
Forth issue is discard production that is geared to mindless consumerism and needless repetitive consumption and the industries that support them. Too many choices and too short a lifespan for products have socially and environmentally unbearable costs. The fifth issue is invent a rational approach to waste which means to minimize all waste, forbid the disposal of toxics of any sort, eliminate most if not all single-use products and enforce mandatory and systematic reuse of containers and packaging. Lastly, Smith if we have to shut down polluting or wasteful industries then society is going to have to provide equivalent jobs because if we do not, more problems will emerge.
The biggest concern about implementing this new macro-economic model is to destroy the freedom that society currently has through capitalist economic model, to buy and produce as they wish. The market would also be very limited. However, planning and executing this new system is imperative as we are now very efficiently liquidating every resource on the planet and if we want to save ourselves and many citizens of the ecology, we have to live without the freedom of capitalist.
Eco-socialist Efficiency vs. Capitalist Efficiency
The concept of efficiency in eco-socialist economy is very different from capitalist economy. There is room for labour and natural resources efficiency in an ecological economy but in capitalist economy, it is the opposite. Capitalist economy suggests that efficiency in usage of resources means using the saved resources to produce even more commodities. In capitalist system, efficiency happens when the conversion of even more natural resources into the products is accelerated (Smith, 2010). Gains in technological efficiency and economies of scale have observed increased overall consumption of natural resources rather than saving them.
Contradicting with capitalist economy, eco-socialist economy does not really have profit as main goal of production. Such gains in efficiency could actually save these natural resources for the benefit of society and future generation. From a social ecological perspective, it would be ridiculously inefficient to waste resources by producing unnecessary products and services. It would be highly efficient if car and electrical appliances are built to be durable and long lasting and have them in the way that they can be upgraded and improved without having the needs to replace them. As suggested by Smith (2010), it would be far less costly to society and environment. However, in the capitalist world that we are living in there would only one business goal, increasing profit. Thus, corporations would produce at a large scale, sell products at lower prices to more customers and push sales and profit higher (Smith, 2010)
In his article, Smith defines post-capitalist economic democracy as a new macro-economic model, a practical workable post capitalist ecological economy, an economy by the people, for the people, that is geared to production for need, not for profit (Smith, 2010)
On the same note, Sarkar (2000) argues that the Socialist project is not dead but in order to flourish, it must be incorporated with lessons of ecology. A fresh, exciting, and relevant mission of ecological sustainable and socially just way of living could be achieved through this incorporation.
Reformist and Transformist’s Ideal Economy Model for Sustainable Development
A reformist approach sees the current dominant capitalist model and its supporting political structures, and noting its various forms around the world, as fundamentally sound and well able to deliver the key reformist sustainability goal of continued human development or, more commonly, sustainable development.
Transformational approach sees the current dominant economic, political and institutional system as the root cause of current unsustainable behavior, and to progress a sustainable world agenda fundamental transformational change to this system is needed (Clifton, 2011). The key features of socio-economic system change suggested by the transformist are:
1. Human wellbeing as best progressed through consumptive sufficiency and a focus on wellbeing through life experiences
2. Continued consumptive growth as unsustainable and a primary cause of ecological problems and poverty
3. Poverty as best resolved through resource allocation not more global-level resource-through-put growth
4. Quantitative constraints place on natural resource use and waste discharged into the
These stated features also consist in eco-socialist economic democracy. Thus, ecological socialist economic democracy is seen as the best approach in satisfying not only transformists’ but also other eco-socialists’ requirement of an ideal economy.
Kindly email me (email@example.com) for more details and full reference list. Hope you have gained something beneficial by reading our work and please, do not plagiarise!
Nobody can do everything, but everybody can do something for environmental sustainability.
thanks for reading! :)
Thursday, March 7, 2013
As usual, this post has been kept as "pekasam" for more than 2 weeks now. hehe..
My First Hiking Experience -
A Colourful Journey to Kerachut Beach with MBA Family, 17 Feb 2013
To be honest, maybe i'm a bit more excited about going for this trip instead of starting my 2nd sem when I was driving back to Parit Buntar. haha.. I have been wondering for so long, how would it feel like to go for such adventure? .. So, when the opportunity comes, I immediately grab it by saying yes, i'm in! :) plus, i really like travelling. especially when it's cheap ;)
Don't get me wrong, I really love attending lectures too. Seriously. ehem..
So, at my home in Shah Alam, I started preparing. By EATING a lot. LOL! I really did not do anything to increase my stamina besides eating. and before departing, I've actually cooked lambchop for the whole family for Breakfast. haha.. as nervous as I am for not having enough stamina, I'm more nervous at the thought of not able to find this kinda food easily at P. Buntar/Penang. And opah's and tok timah's house definitely will not have enough ingredients nor enough people to finish it if I were to cook this myself later.
haha.. (apekah alia? merapu pasal lambchop??)
|Breakfast- a day before hiking trip|
OK, let's get back to the real story. My first hiking experience.
We gathered at 6.45am in USM that day, and in the bus we were given 2 buns, soy drink, a banana (to avoid cramps) and kit kat :)
|Breakfast - in bus|
Upon arriving, we have an ice-breaking session which was quite funny and also did some exercise. And of course, we also took lots of pictures.
Located at the beach, the starting point itself is very nice with scenic views. Kerachut Beach, the hills that we climbed to get there, and everything within that huge area are part of Penang National Park.
|Happy excited faces - before the hike|
And the journey begins..
At first, we were walking on a walkway. and I said to myself, hahaha... I'm so silly to think that hiking is dangerous/challenging/tiring whatsoever. This is easy man! For 3km, we would definitely take less than 1 1/2 hour to reach the beach.
The hike seemed endless..especially for me. hahaha... Luckily, the strategy of eating a lot before hiking worked fine for me (kind of. lol). I have lots of energy to climb but of course, not much stamina to climb the hill fast. So, I climbed the hill at my own pace and it was fun to enjoy the nature while continuously taking pictures.
|Well maintained happy walkway|
|Wooden bridge near the starting point|
And as usual, I was soooo wrong! haha..
The hilly trail that we faced right after the happy walkway has many many staircases, or shall I call it rootcases? Cos, the trail was all covered with trees' roots.
|Roots and height and more roots and staircase|
|I told ya!|
Also, the banana helps! I did not experience any cramps that day.. until I arrive home. (but that's a different story)
It's very true that hiking with friends are so much fun! Although the journey was very tiring, I could not stop giggling, smiling and laughing throughout the expedition.
My friend, Guan (the boy holding plastic bag in d above pic) kept on encouraging us saying that we are almost there.. When actually we have not even passed a quarter of the trail yet. lol
|Taking a break at one of the pit stops|
I'm very happy to discover that the the trail after this pit stop was not as challenging as the earlier trail :D
Instead of going up up up up and upppp, we are now going down, flat surface, up, down, down, down, flat surface, up. (I hope you understand what I'm trying to explain..hehe)
|Priya, Steven, Guan & Kak Jo (Kerachut Beach: 1.0 KM )|
This trip was very meaningful, not just because I have had the chance to share exciting hiking experience together with my close friends.. kak fadz, anas, kak jo, ming fang, azura and everyone but it is special because this activity was also joined by the dean dr sofri, the deputy dean tn Hj and most importantly, dr yudi my research supervisor.
The most interesting part was, we actually discussed about my research progress and plan while hiking. Seriously, these people are very dedicated to their work and I'll definitely feel bad if I don't work as hard. sayonara darling holiday ~~ till we meet again T_T
Oh, towards the end, the trail became quite dangerous, steep to be exact. And I was one of the unfortunates who have sprained her poor knee when I jumped down and had the difficulty to walk properly for 2 weeks. huahua..
|Enjoying scenic view with beautiful people|
|Yup, we are heading there!|
|Ming Fang, Anas, Dr Yudi|
And finally!! this is the bridge that links the hilly trail with Kerachut Beach. Hurrayyy! we are here :D
|Celebrating our joyous moment :)|
|We did it, YeaY! ^_^|
|So pretty, EVERYTHING is worthwhile|
|must take pic on the jetty :)|
|Kak fadz, always a darling to me :)|
|Play game till you drop together!|
|Secret spies protecting the island|
|Doing community service while we are there|
|Coolest organisers ever!|
|Watching baby turtles together at turtle conservation center, Pantai Kerachut|
The turtles here are very special. Instead of coming at specific months of the year, the turtles in Penang come to Kerachut Beach throughout the year to lay their eggs.
It is quite risky to swim at the beach since there would be groups of jellyfish swimming together with you. Jellyfish is the main source of food for these turtles, that's why turtles love it here :)
|Very thankful to the organisers, Steven & friends who carried the food for us throughout the journey|
|and its time to say goodbye|
I felt so grateful that we have an option to go back to our starting point by boat :) I would have fainted if I were asked to hike back. hehe..
We only have to sit back, relax, and happily enjoy the nature :)
P/s: Special thanks to the organisers, MBA GSB Club's Committee for making 17 Feb one of the happiest days of my life. Also to the pretty photographer, Vivyan Teh, thank you for capturing these beautiful pictures. I love them all :)
thanks for reading! :)
|TATA FOR NOW|
thanks for reading! :)